Sie hat das Bild, das wir heute von den Protagonisten des Wien um 1900 haben, geprägt wie niemand anderes. Von Alma (Mahler) bis (Berta) Zuckerkandl gesellte sich in das Atelier d’Ora alles, was Rang und Namen hatte, Vertreter des Kulturbetriebes ebenso wie jene der Aristokratie. Ohne selbst hinter der Kamera zu stehen, stand hinter dem Atelier d’Dora Dora Kallmus (1881-1963).
Mit den Ausbildungsmöglichkeiten für eine Frau die in diesem Metier reüssieren wollte, sah es eher trist aus. Immerhin durfte sie dem Gesellschaftsfotografen Hans Makart (Sohn des Malers) einen Sommer lang über die Schulter blicken, bevor sie an der Graphischen Versuchs- und Lehranstalt die Fotografie zumindest in der Theorie erlernen durfte. „Man fand es genügend, mir als allererste Frau Zutritt zu den Vorträgen gestattet zu haben und hielt die chemischen Reagenzien von mir fern, als wären sie unanständige Witze“, erinnert sich Dora Kallmus später. Fünf Monate verbrachte sie im Atelier des Berliner Fotografen Nicola Perscheid, von dem sie neben dem Umgang mit Kunden das Entscheidende lernte: „schauen und wieder schauen“. Sie sorgte im 1907 eröffneten Atelier für Empathie und Arrangement, kümmerte sich um Dekor, Draperie sowie andere Details, der gelernte Fotograf Arthur Benda, den sie in Berlin bei Perscheid kennengelernt hatte, um die Fotografie. „Ihre wesentliche Tat, als Dame der Wiener Gesellschaft ein photographisches Atelier zu errichten, bewies doch großen Mut“, formulierte der Mitarbeiter und spätere Compagnon Jahre später. Doch die d’Ora wollte nicht einfach ein Atelier eröffnen, die d’Ora wollte „in Mode kommen“, was ihr in Wien und in weiterer Folge mit viel Wiener Charme auch in Paris bestens gelang.
Das Atelier d’Ora entwickelte sich schnell zur führenden Adresse für Gesellschafts-, Tanz- und Theaterfotografie wie auch dem neu aufstrebenden Metier der Modefotografie. Mindestens 90.000 Aufnahmen, so geht aus den Atelierbüchern hervor, wurden in den Jahren zwischen 1907 und 1927 in Wien gemacht, danach verkaufte sie das Wiener Atelier mitsamt der Rechte für das bisherige fotografische Œuvre an Bender und ließ sich nach mehreren längeren Aufenthalten endgültig in Paris nieder.
Soweit, so bekannt. Doch nun zeigt das Leopold Museum mit den Kuratorinnen Monika Faber und Magdalena Vukovic – beide Photoinstitut Bonartes – in „Machen Sie mich schön, Madame d’Ora“ das Gesamtwerk von Dora Kallmus, ergänzt durch ausgewählte Modekreationen der jeweiligen Zeit. Bis zu ihrer Flucht vor den Nazis stellt die d’Ora gemeinsam mit Kollegen wie Germaine Krull oder Man Ray aus, fotografiert für die führenden Magazine und Modehäuser, inszeniert Portraits der Josephine Baker, Tamara Lempicka oder Coco Chanel. Maurice Chevalier wird sie Jahrzehnte lang fotografisch und freundschaftlich begleiten. Kurzum, nach dem mittlerweile verblassten Glanz des Wien um 1900, fängt sie den Glamour des Paris der 20er Jahre ein.
In Nazi-Deutschland wurde die Veröffentlichung von Fotografien des Atelier d’Ora bereits 1935 verboten, vier Jahre später wird das Familienanwesen in Frohnleiten arisiert, der Versuch mit ihrer Schwester in die USA auszuwandern scheitert und während Dora, versteckt in einem französischen Bergdorf den Krieg überlebt, wird die Schwester Anna im Vernichtungslager Kulmhof ermordet.
Zurück im Paris der Nachkriegszeit arbeitet die d’Dora nun ohne Studio mit Assistenten weiter, erweitert ihr Spektrum um sensible Beobachtungen in den Schlachthöfen von Paris und den Flüchtlingslagern in Wien und Salzburg. Jeweils wird das Individuum in seinem Leid aus der Masse gelöst, auch das lässt sich als Gesellschaftsfotografie verstehen. Bei ihrer letzten von Jean Cocteau eröffneten Ausstellung 1958 hat sie dann entsprechend alles gezeigt.
Der Bogen, gespannt vom ersten Künstlerportrait von Madame d‘Dora in Wien bis zu ihrem letzten in Paris, ergibt eine Konstellation, bei der so mancher Wiener Museumsdirektor vor Neid ob ihrer Blockbustertauglichkeit erblassen würde: Von Klimt zu Picasso
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